The Jewish War Orphans Committee of Canada
The Canadian Jewish Chronicles
September 30, 1932
The story of the Jewish War Orphans Committee is entitled to be described as one of the romances of Canadian Jewish life. Conceived in time of grave emergency, raised swiftly to full maturity of service, and carrying out a relief and rescue work that was as unique as it was humanitarian and practical, the Committee surely have the right to pride themselves upon having carved a deep and lasting niche in the annals of Jewish accomplishment.
It was in the summer of 1920 that the pitiable condition of the Jewish child population of Ukrainia first came to the attention of Canadian Jewry in a direct and authoritative way. Professor Elie Heifetz came to America from Europe in July of that year with a story of suffering and tragedy that would have seemed unbelievable had it not been fully substantiated.
There were more than 137,000 Jewish orphans in the Ukraine, he reported, children of tender ages practically living wild and semi-barbarous lives, without homes or means of obtaining regular sustenance beyond their own puny resources, which were mainly the garbage lots of Ukrainian towns and villages, and when this source failed to provide for them, they were trying ·to assuage the pangs of hunger by eating such edible wild roots and herbs as were left in a territory that had been sadly ravaged by war and post-war excesses. It was felt that aid for these orphans was an imperative duty of the Jews of the American continent, who had known nothing of such terrible privation.
At a meeting held in Montreal on July 11th, Lyon Cohen, president of the Canadian Jewish Congress was chairman, and a committee was formed to lay plans for the work here. It was realized at the outset that the task would be a big one and would require the interest and support of all Canadian Jewry if it were to be conducted efficiently. The question of forming a Dominionwide organization came up, and it was resolved to invite Mrs. A. J. Freiman of Ottawa, a woman much respected and beloved by her people, who had been a dominant figure in both Jewish and non-Jewish social and relief work, during the years of the Great War, and the years that followed the signing of peace, to become the head of the orphans activity.
On July 14th, 1920, Mrs. Freiman received a telegram which read as follows:
"Myself` and Prof. Heifetz of Ukrainia and Mrs. Joseph Selick of Toronto, coming to sea tomorrow morning on important mission about Ukrainian orphans. I am sure our journey will be a. success"
The message was signed by H. Hershman of the People‘s Relief Committee, Montreal, and he, with Prof. Heifetz and Mrs. Raginsky, Sr., a leading social worker in Toronto then, but now resident in Montreal, went to Ottawa on july 15th. where they placed all the facts in their possession regarding the Ukrainian orphans before Mrs. Freiman. If there was anything calculated to stir up the fullest sympathy of Mrs. Freirnan, it was a story of orphans, and she promptly pledged herself to the pressing cause. She wasted no time getting matters started and arranged a conference with Mr. F. C. Blair, then secretary of the Department of Immigration and Colonization. which was attended by herself. Prof. Heifetz, and Mr. Hershman. The situation was fully explained to Mr. Blair and permission asked for the admission of 1,000 orphans ·from Ukrainia, to be adopted by Canadian Jewish families.
Consideration was promised by the departmental authorities who evinced every desire to cooperate with Mrs. Freiman and her co-workers. The Department felt, however, that the mass immigration of 1,000 children might be too large a problem to handle, and so on July 24th, Mr. Blair wrote to Mrs. Freiman advising that the government would consent to the admission of 200 orphans, as an initial experiment, intimating that further numbers might be allowed to enter Canada, children in distress, particularly if the settlement of the first 200 were made in a manner satisfactory to the Department of Immigration.
It was stipulated that complete arrangements for the reception and adoption of the children in Canada had to be made in advance of their coming, and also that a proper organization be formed to carry on the work, to all of these conditions there being immediate agreement by Mrs. Freiman and her colleagues.
On August 8th, 1920, a meeting took place in Ottawa, at which Louis Zucker, president of the Peoples Relief Committee, Mrs. Freiman and Prof. Heifetz, went further into the plans for the work.
They decided that the most propitious time to appeal for Canadian Jewry`s support would during Rosh Hashanah. On August 9, there was a conference in Montreal, at which delegates representing more than 100 organizations were present. This conference formally named Mrs. F reiman as Dominion President of the Ukrainian Orphans Committee, and Prof. Heifetz as director. A committee to look after the appeal in Montreal was appointed to comprise Lyon Cohen, Rabbi H. Cohen, Leon Meltzer, S. D. Cohen, Louis Zucker, Lionel Coviensky, and Harry Barsky.
As the magnitude of the work to be done necessitated the fullest interest and support of Jews in all parts of Canada, it has felt that a representative Dominion-wide conference was essential to perfect the organization that had been tentatively formed and also to ensure proper recognition of all sections and districts. On Oct. 1st 1920, a telegram in the name of Mrs. Freiman and Prof. Heifetz was sent to leaders in the different communities from coast to coast, reading as follows:
"Cordially invite you to be guest at Dominion-wide conference of delegates of Jewish Ukrainian Orphan Relief Organization to be held in Chateau Laurier, Ottawa. Oct. 6th. 7th, 8th. Jewish hearts all over Canada have been deeply stirred by authentic accounts of suffering of these Jewish orphans and everywhere great enthusiasm prevails for our plans to rescue and bring some here for adoption ln homes where they will be given the love and care they now so pitiably lack. May we not have your co-operation in this noble undertaking."
This conference one of the most momentous gatherings of its kind held by Canadian Jews, took place in Ottawa, as scheduled. Mrs. Freiman held a reception at her beautiful home for the delegates on the evening of Oct. oth. and the main business sessions took place the following day, with Mrs. Freiman presiding. Mr. Harold Fisher, then . Moyar of Ottawa, delivered an address of welcome, in which he bestowed felicitations on those who had gathered together for so worthy a purpose. Mr. F. C. Blair, then secretary of the Department of Immigration, and now, at the time of writing, assistant deputy minister of the same department, also spoke to the delegates, explaining his de·partment’s attitude and promising all the co-operation and
The official register of delegates at the conference contains the names of the following: Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Freiman, Ottawa, Ont., Joseph Graner, Toronto, Ont.; B. Lastar, London, Ont.; M. Shiner, Melfort, Sask.; E. Herman, Toronto, Ont.; H, Iseustein, Calgary, Alta.; Mrs. Asher Pierce, Montreal; Mrs. Lisle Isaacs, St. John, N.B.; Mrs. Joseph Rosenbloom, Sherbrooke, Que.; Mrs. J. Kushner, Sherbrooke, Que.; H. Potter, Toronto Ont.; Mrs. J. Selick, Toronto, Ont.: Harry Kitz, Halifax, N .S.; Charles Zwerling, Halifax, N.S.; H. Hershman, Montreal; Prof. Elie Heifetz, Ukrainia; Lionel Coviensky, Montreal; Rabbi S. Levin, Hamilton, Ont.? Mrs. L. Lazarovictz, Quebec, P.Q.; H. Wolofsky, Montreal; Miss Ida Seigler, Montreal: M. Buclovitch, St. John, N.B.; Mrs. Moe Levy, Hamilton, Ont.; S. Guttman, Montreal; Nathan Bacal, Quebec, P.Q.; N. Gardner, Quebec, P.Q.; D. Goldenberg, Campbellton, N.B.; Sam Berger, Ottawa; Lyon Cohen, Montreal; D. S. Friedman. Montreal; A. H. Caplan, Ottawa; J. A. Cherniack, Winnipeg; Benjamin Goldlield, Ottawa; Louis Epstein, Ottawa; Max Mains, Winnipeg; Max Steinknpf, Winnipeg; Mrs. C. J. Gross, Montreal; Rabbi Julius Berger, Hamilton, Ont.; Louis Zucker, Montreal; S. W. Jacobs, K.C., M.P., Montreal; and Solomon Lowenstein, Charles Zunser, and Reuben Brainin of New York City, the first two mentioned representing the orphans branch of the Joint Distribution Committee.
During their stay in Ottawa, the delegates were also entertained by A. H. Coplan and the Hadassah Chapter.
Mrs. Arthur Meighen, wife of Rt. Hon. Arthur Meighen, who was then Prime Minister of Canada, graciously consented to accept the office of honorary resident of the committee and Lady Davis, Montreal, Lady Borden, Ottawa, and Mrs. Mark Workman, Montreal, became honorary vice-presidents.
Her Excellency the Duchess of Devonshire, wife of Canada’s Governor-General af that time, had been informed of the projected work of the organization by Mrs. Freiman, and her private secretary, Miss Elsie Saunders, had written Mrs. Freiman, as follows:
25tn Aug., 1920.
"Dear Mrs. Freiman:
I have placed your letter ot Aug 17rth before the Duches of Devonshire.
Her Excellency was much Interested to hear ot the formation of the Jewish Ukrainian Orphans Organization of Canada.
Her Excellency reels that under your leadership the scheme will be carefully worked out and will prove a very successful one.
I shall be glad to hear how your organization progresses and shall be happy to lay before Her Excellency, any reports on the adoption of the first 200 orphans in Canadian families.
The Province of Ontario, which has the largest Jewish population, subscribed $32,700 of the grand total; other provinces contributing as follows Quebec, $18,142; Manitoba, $15,500; Alberta, $11,450; Nova Scotia, $7,250; Saskatchewan $4,600; New Brunswick, $3,450; and British Columbia, $3,000. The sum was raised afterwards supplemented by an appropriation of $50,000 for the special orphans work, made by the Associated Jewish War Relief Societies, Inc., but it was later found unnecessary to use this money.
It had been hoped by the executive committee to despatch the unit to Ukrainia to select and bring the orphans to Canada, on November 24th, 1920, but delays occurred in connection with the provision of travelling documents for Prof. Heifetz, who had been appointed director. Finally, after several weeks of inaction, it became evident that Prof, Heifetz, who was a subject of soviet Russia, could not obtain the documents that were indispensable to enable him to pass unhindered through different European countries, and to ensure that he would be in a position to seek the co-operation of the governments of these countries. For this, and other reasons, the executive committee at a meeting in Montreal on December 21st, 1920, appointed Mr. Gregory Sanders, of Montreal, as director of the unit, replacing Prof. Heifetz, the latter being amply compensated for the time he had given to the work. The rest of the personnel of the unit was named to be as follows:—Mr. Harry Hershman, Montreal, assistant director; Dr. Joseph Leavitt, Montreal, medical director; and Mr. William Farrar, Hamilton, Ont., director of transportation. Both Mr. Sanders and Mr. Hershman were highly respected members of the Montreal community, and had been active in social work. Mr. Hershman had the added qualification of having personally visited the destitute regions of Poland and Ukrainia that same year. Dr. Leavitt’s appointment was particularly pleasing for he had gained an enviable record
in service during the war.
The interest of Canadian Jewry in their unique undertaking was quickened when the unit sailed for Europe by the White Star liner Cedric on Feb. 5th, 1921. Applications for the children began to arrive in increasing numbers at the Dominion headquarters at Ottawa, where the executive secretarial work had been taken over by Mr. G. Garrow-Greene, private secretary to Mr. and Mrs. Freirnan, who had succeeded the original incumbent of the office, Mr. Sam Berger.
Scores of appeals came from families in all parts of the country, who wished the unit to enquire for child relatives in Europe of whom nothing had been heard for several years. The committee promised these families that every effort would be made to locate the missing children, and instructions were sent abroad for the guidance of the unit. Eleven of the children specifically enquired about were found and brought to Canada with the other children, at their relatives expense. Many others who could not be brought, were placed in touch with their relatives in Canada.
The Committee was incorporated under the War Charities Act, 1917, with a federal charter, on Feb. 28, 1921, under the name "]ewish- War Orphans Committee of Canada,” the applicants for incorporation comprising Mr. and Mrs; A. J. F reiman, J'. J. Marks, A. H. Coplan, J. Holzman and Benjamin Goldiield, all of Ottawa.
In the meantime, the unit had arrived in England and its members were busy making enquiries and securing visas in London. Although the unit had been prepared for very tragic conditions, the members of the unit were shocked to discover the indescribable plight of the war and pogrom sufferers in the small cities and villages of Polish Ukrainla. Writing from Warsaw, on March 17, 1921, Mr. Farrar said "The jews in Ukrainia. have been in Hell. Young girls come here with the most heartrending stories. I am made sad from morning until night."
After completing the preliminary work in Warsaw, the unit proceeded on its way, reaching Rovno, which had been selected as the base for activity, on April 3rd. It was the glorious hopeful season of spring, but alas, such a spring in Poland. How the thoughts of each member of the unit must have turned toward Canada, where the springs come year after year under happy circumstances. Spring meant nothing of what it had in Canada, to these Canadians in Poland. True, here and there, the trees were green with budding foliage, and the ground had splotches of grass, but there was so much of desolation that the signs of spring became insignificant. Trees everywhere gaunt and charred, met their gaze, trees that seemed to speak of war and pillage, and upheaval; and most indelibly impressive of all, was a population which faced the picture of utter hopelessness and misery. Women clutching their sirts, their eyes darting hither and thither filled with the fear that experience had taught them to have. And the children! What horrible mute stories the faces of the little ones told. They did not need to speak. Children of perhaps four or five with features of aged persons, eyes sunken, cheeks nothing but‘skin and hone, bodies almost mere skeletons. Surely, thought these missionaries of humanitarianism, this was the saddest spot on earth.
There was no lack of children for the unit to examine. Thousands had been registered by the representatives of the Joint Distribution Committee, and the fortunate ones accommodated in the three homes that had been established in Rovno. But there were also many others living in sheds and in the open for space in the homes was limited. Did they want to go to Canada? The excitement, and the anxiety to be chosen which prevailed amongst the children of Rovno, stirred pangs of pity in the hearts of each member of the unit, for sad though it was to decide that way, very few, if any of the children first examined were fit to pass the physical and mental tests. With the valuable co~operation of the agents of the ]oint Distribution Committee, the unit set to work.
The memory of the week that followed their arrival in Rovno will probably never be erased from their minds. Over 1,000 children were examined by Dr. Leavitt and he found only 46 whom he thought might be of the standard required. The pale thin faces of the little ones, the eyes which mirrored years of intense suffering, almost unnerved the doctor. Over 8,000 children had to be examined eventually before the number brought to Canada was selected. Three children who came before the doctor were all that remained of a happy family of fifteen members. All the others had been killed or had died of diseases brought on by wounds and hunger. One of the three was a cripple, and so the Jewish community of Rovno refused to allow the other two to he taken, as it was felt that they would likely be the sole means of support of the crippled child in later years. In a letter which he wrote to Mr. F reiman from Rovno on April 7th, Mr. Hershman said,
"We examined children from the Felstin district, and out of 80, found only 15 to comply with our regulations. Most of the others are in a very poor physical state, some of them maimed and crippled from the effects of pogroms they were in."
In this letter, Mr. Hershman expressed the belief that it would take from two to three months longer to pick out the required number of children. And then, in a later letter, he wrote:‘
"Children born in the Ukraine from 3 to 6 years ago, could not survive, especially if they had become orphans at the ages of 1 or 2 years. Those who survived are the fortunate ones whose parents were spared, and only superhuman sacrifices on the part of the parents saved them.”
A cable was received from Mr. Hershman, by Mr. Freiman, dated April 10th, advising that the unit had 50 children selected from the Zwihil, Chudnow, Zhitomar, and Felstin districts. On April 21st, he cabled that this number had been increased to 60 children between the ages of 4 and 12 years.
The people in Canada were getting anxious for the children to be brought to Canada, and so on April 25th, headquarters at Ottawa cabled the unit to send the first party, as soon as possible. The unit was meeting with tremendous difficulties. First, there were ,no suitable houses in Rovno in which they could place the children after they had been selected. There had been delay in th-e'arriva.l of the cases of clothing, and the greatest difficulty of all, was the absolute lack of official records relating to the births of the children. This, of course, was vitally essential.
Appreciating the need for expediting the work, Mr, Freiman cabled the unit on May 20th, 1921, instructing them that as conditions in Canada necessitated quick conclusion of the work, the number of children to be brought to Canada should be reduced to 150, instead of the original number of 200. One of the reasons which forced this decision on the part of the Committee was that most of the children found eligible for emigration were older than as desired by the families making application for them here. Mr. Hershman had reported that there were very few children under 6 years of age left alive in Ukrainia, and the records at headquarters in Ottawa indicated that 70 per cent. of the applications were for children under that age . As news came from the unit, bulletins were sent out to all the local committees and to those who had applied for children, informing them of the situation as reported by the unit, and the biggest proportion of the families who had signified their willingness to adopt orphans, was found ready to take children a little older than they had originally stipulated. A further cable was sent to the unit, instructing them to endeavour to finish their work by June 15th.
In view of the reduction of the quota from 200 to 150 orphans, it was decided to concentrate them all at Antwerp, until the date of sailing. While the Erst party of 51 children were at Vienna, Mr. Hershman and Dr. Leavitt were speeding up the selection of the remainder. Finally, after the elapse of another month, all obstacles had been surmounted. Passports and visas had been secured. A cable was despatched to Canada advising headquarters to purchase steamship transportation, which was done through the Canadian Pacific Ocean Services. The main body of children in care of Mr. Hershman and Dr. Leavitt left Rovno on ]uIy 22nd, this time the railroad cars having been placed in Rovno station. Simultaneously, the other children started from Vienna for Antwerp. A Sabbath intervening during the railroad journey was spent in Dresden, Germany, and Antwerp was reached on August 6th, just three days before the date of departure of the S.S. Scandinavian, which was to take the first party.
When word was received in Canada of the readiness of the children for the sea voyage, Mrs. A. J. Freiman, Dominion President of the Committee, who had been largely responsible for the carrying out of the momentous scheme, prepared to leave for Europe to take charge of the orphans and return with them to Canada. She sailed for Southampton on july 17th, with Mrs. Asher Pierce, of Montreal, a member of the executive committee. Their arrival at Antwerp was a great event for thmchildren, who were all delighted to meet the lady they had heard so much about.
The first party of children, numbering in all 108, including the 6 escorted children, left Antwerp on August 9, 1921. One can imagine the hearts of the little ones beating more rapidly as their thoughts centered on the land of promise to which they were at last on their way.
Each child had an outfit of clothing and shoes, and fastened to each little jacket and blouse was a tag on which the identity of the child in question, had been inscribed. The steamship oflicials had made special preparations to ensure a comfortable and pleasant voyage. A kitchen for the cooking of kosher foods was one very much appreciated feature. On the voyage across, Mrs. Freiman and Mrs. Pierce worked with the members of the unit in classifying the children according to sexes and ages, so as to avoid delay in the assignment oi the children when Quebec, the port of debarkation, would be reached. Four special nurses had been engaged in Europe to travel with the children and attend to their wants, arrangements having been made for the admission of these adults when Canada was reached. The officers of the steamship did everything possible for the little ones in their care, and as for the passengers, they quickly ` made "pets" of the orphans, and showered them with attention and presents. The little ones were having a taste of the human kindness which awaited them in Canada.
The Scandinavian arrived at Quebec on August 20th, at night. What excitement prevailed! The children spent the last few hours on the boat scurrying around, gathering up their little keepsakes, now and then rushing to the sides of the boat to gaze with marvelling eyes at the twinkling lights of the St. Lawrence shore. The landing of the children in the early hows of August 21st, was a great event in the history of the Jewish community of Quebec. Great preparations had been made to welcome the children.
The party was met by those who been leaders in the works of the jewish War Orphans Committee, including: A. J.. Freiman, Ottawa; D. S. Friedman, Montreal; Horace R. Cohen, Montreal; Lionel Coviensky, Miss Hattie Silvernnan, Montreal; G. G. Greene, Ottawa; Asher Pierce, Montreal; Dr. C. J. Gross, Montreal (since deceased); Mrs. P. Kaufmann, Mrs. M. Kamarner, Mrs. Anna Selick (Mrs. A. Raginslty, Sr.), Toronto; Max Budovitch, St. John, N.B.; and Mrs. M. Levy,·Hamilton, Ont.
The children were speedily passed through the immigration examinations, and then formed up into a procession, each child carrying a tiny Union Jack, and knapsacks on their backs. In this way, they marched through the principal streets of Quebec, to the community hall, where a line repast had been prepared for them by a committee under the convenership of Mrs. L. Lazarovictz. Miss Rachel Smilovitz read an address of welcome to Mrs. Freiman, in English, and Mrs. Lazarovictz, an address in Yiddish. Speeches were delivered by Mr. Freiman, Mrs. Freiman, Mr. Farrar, Mr. D. S. Friedman and Mr. Hershman. The children will probably never forget that first meal on Canadian soil. There was a huge quantity of deliciously cooked chicken, vegetables, and a supply of fruit that was too much for even a hundred hungry boys and girls. When the children had been adequately cared for, the executive committee conferred at the Chateau Frontenac, and allotted the children according to the local requirements, being careful to keep brothers and sisters together for adoption in the same communities. The children were rested during the day and left Quebec on the evening of August 21st, destined as follows: 55 to Toronto, for that city, and various Ontario points; 21 to Montreal and Ottawa; 12 to Winnipeg, and 16 to St. john, N.B.
lt was both a. joyful and sad hour for the little orphans when the time came to break the happy union which had been maintained during the weeks that had elapsed since they had been accepted by the unit at Rovno. Tears were freely shed. There were loving embraces, murmured endearments, and promises to write, and then the children destined to proceed in separate directions were gently separated and taken to the station, where they were made comfortable in their berths for the night. The railroad arrangements were made by the C.N.R., and everything possible had been done for the comfort of the little travellers on. the journey to their future homes. Mrs. Freiman accompanied the children to Montreal and Ottawa; Mr. Hershman took the children to Toronto; Mr. M. Burdovitch escorted the children to St. john for the Maritime Provinces, and Miss Hattie Silverman took the children to Winnipeg.
Of the number of 146 brought to Canada, 34 were eventually united with relatives who had been living in Canada for some time previous. When it was ascertained that there were near relatives of the children living in Canada, and that these relatives desired to have the children join them, careful enquiry was made by the Committee as to the standing of the families, whether the advantages offered were as good as the children were enjoying with their foster parents, the main considerations, however, being in regard to the desire of the children themselves to go to their relatives, and the willingness of the foster-parents to relinquish them. There were cases in which the Committee did not deem it in the interest of the children concerned to turn them over to relatives. At the time of writing, there are 103 children living with foster-parents, and they have been a credit to themselves, the Committee and the families that have undertaken to bring them up. Adopted children are living in Beloil, Que., Halifax, N.S., Farnham, Que., Hamilton, Ont., Montreal Que., New Waterford, N .S., Pembroke Ont., Quebec, St. john, N .B., Ottawa, Sydney, N.S., Toronto, Winnipeg, and Woodstock, N.B. In four cases, there are two children adopted by one family. In addition, 9 children, for whom, owing to ages and individual characteristics suitable homes could not be found, were cared for at the expense of the Committee in Montreal, Toronto and Winnipeg. Five of them are learning trades and going to night schools, the others are attending the day schools, preparatory to taking up some vocation, under the supervision of the Committee. lt is sad to record that one child died in Toronto on july 9, 1923. from an organic disease, although everything possible was done to save his life. In view of the terrible hardships suffered by the children before they 'came to Canada, the fact that only one child died is regarded as a favorable commentary on the homes they were placed in and the care given the selection of such homes by the Committee.
For about two years after the children were settled in Canada, Mr, Hershman occupied the position of field superintendent, and made occasional trips of inspection to the children in their homes. He resigned from this post on Aug, 6 1923. Four of the children not adopted who were being cared for in the Hebrew Orphan Home, Montreal, had a thrilling experience when the Home`s country branch at Shawbridge, Que., where they were spending the summer, was burned to the ground on August 16, 1922. Fortunately they were rescued.
The orphans became rapidly accustomed to Canadian life, and quite a large number of them showed unusual intelligence and quickness. A glance through reports received by the Committee brought to light the. following interesting examples of the progress of the children lat school. It must be remembered that they started out handicapped by lack of knowledge of the English language. One child promoted in first term from 4th to 9th reader; an other child promoted from 4th to 5th grade in less than a term; a child was promoted over the next three classes, and still another child was passed over two classes. There is the case of a boy passing with an average of 99 mark, after the first year. A girl went up to the 3rd grade after her first term, an other girl went from one grade to two grades higher. A boy after 21/2 years in Canada, ranked first in the 6th year at public school with a percentage of 92.7.
Following a visit to Canada of a delegation headed by Dr. Leo Motzkin, of the Jewish World Relief Conference, Paris, the Committee met to consider the advisability of voting part of the moneys left on hand for the work of the Conference in succouring the orphans of the Ukraine. The meeting was held on Feb. 8, 1924, and the sum of $12,000 was voted, this amounting when remitted to 255,861 francs. With this money, the Conference opened a kitchen in Elizavetgrad, Russia, where 500 children were fed daily. The kitchen was located in the heart of the Jewish quarter, where resided "the poorest of the poor".
On Feb. 10, 1925, the Toronto committee held a banquet in honor of Mr. and Mrs. Freiman, at which there were many leading members of the local community, and speeches were delivered which extolled the humanitarian work which both Mr. and Mrs Freiman had directed to a successful conclusion.
The work of the Jewish War Orphans Committee has been worth while in every way. Nearly 150 children were brought to Canada. They were undoubtedly saved from a hopeless situation from which it is quite probable that they would have eventually been victims. They are all giving promise of becoming good citizens, and are also being brought up to manhood and womanhood in an environment which will enable them to live the true Jewish life. Cold statistics cannot be used to measure the value of the Committee`s contribution toward the welfare of humanity.