The next China?

Date: 2008-04-15

With five-year waiting lists for Chinese infants, Canadians are increasingly looking to African countries for adoption. But the journey is rife with potential pitfalls. Hayley Mick reports

HAYLEY MICK
Published on Tuesday, Apr. 15, 2008 8:49AM EDT
Last updated on Monday, Mar. 30, 2009 3:30PM EDT

Michelle and David Huck know well the promise and peril of adopting from Africa.

The Calgary couple's first attempt began smoothly: A Canadian adoption agency newly licensed to work in Sierra Leone matched them with orphaned siblings - Amie, 3, and her one-year-old brother, Sorie. For a year, the Hucks filled out paperwork, prepared a bedroom and paid more than $20,000 in fees. But when Mr. Huck flew to the war-torn country, he made a terrible discovery: Amie and Sorie did not exist. "It was devastating," says Ms. Huck, a social worker.

The Hucks eventually returned to Sierra Leone, adopting baby Samuel from a reputable orphanage run by Canadians.

And last year in Ethiopia, six-year-old Bethlehem Soleil jumped into their arms and completed their family, which also includes two biological children.

The Hucks' story, even with its happy ending, highlights the potential pitfalls as more Canadian families travel to Africa to bring orphaned children home.Canadian adoptions from Africa are on the rise: Last year, there were more than 100 adoptions, a more than threefold increase since 2002. Most are from Ethiopia - now the second most popular country for Canadian international adoptions - rising from 13 adoptions in 2002 to 96 in the first nine months of 2007. South Africa, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Congo have begun sending children to Canada in the past five years.

The trend is in large part due to supply and demand: China's adoption program is slowing down drastically - there are now five-year waiting lists for Chinese infants - so Canadian adoption agencies are spanning out across the globe looking for new programs. Many are turning to Africa, where conflict, poverty and disease have orphaned millions of children - 12 million from HIV-AIDS alone.

Despite the need, and celebrity endorsements from Madonna and Angelina Jolie, Africa's future as an adoption hub troubles some experts because of the potential for abuses.

Earlier this year, Ottawa alerted provincial adoption regulators about serious child-trafficking problems in Liberia - where Canadians have adopted 26 children since 2005. Three jurisdictions - Alberta, Newfoundland and Nunavut - responded by halting all adoptions from Liberia. (Canada-wide moratoriums apply to Cambodia and Guatemala.)

Some experienced adoption agents say there is potential for more problems as agencies scramble for licences in countries where international adoption is new, and proper checks and balances are not yet streamlined.

"Is it competitive? Yeah, it's competitive," says Cheryl Carter-Shotts, who directs Americans for African Adoptions, the first North American adoption agency licensed in Ethiopia in 1996. Now, she says, there are about 60 licensed agencies.

"Families want babies and toddlers. Who's going to come up with babies and toddlers? And how much are you going to charge? Are you soliciting pregnant girls?"

Nothing about adopting from Sierra Leone was easy for Tom and Monique Yurkiw. Almost three years ago, Mr. Yurkiw, a Canadian military medic, was in the country helping to train local soldiers when he met a bright but destitute five-year-old girl named Melrose. Melrose's grandmother, her caretaker, explained that the girl's parents were dead, and encouraged Mr. Yurkiw to adopt the child.

But the Yurkiws soon learned that even humanitarian efforts can't steamroll poverty and corruption. One social worker in Sierra Leone hinted that they could speed up the dragging process if they bought her a laptop. It turned out that Melrose's grandmother, hoping to grant Melrose a better life, had lied about her orphan status. (Melrose's father, who had been in jail, and her mother, who gave birth to Melrose at age 13, later went to a Sierra Leonean court and gave up their legal parental rights so the Yurkiws could adopt.)

Finally, after more than a year of complex paperwork, long-distance calls and about $24,000 in flights and fees, the Yurkiws travelled to Sierra Leone to gather Melrose - then learned her visa hadn't been approved because of a glitch at the Canadian High Commission in Ghana. That threw the entire adoption into question. Two months and another flight later, the adoption went through, but only after the Ottawa Citizen drew attention to the family's plight.

Other couples have had similarly turbulent adoption journeys. Karen and Dave Bakelaar met a boy named Thabiso while volunteering in a South African orphanage. On the advice of a local social worker, the couple returned home to Ottawa to begin the adoption process, only to discover that no Canadian adoption agency was licensed to work in South Africa. What they naively assumed would take three weeks dragged into nine months of angst and dogged effort.

"There were quite a few points where we thought it might not happen," said Ms. Bakelaar, 34, who is studying foreign relations in Ottawa.

The Yurkiws and Bakelaars faced these trials, in part, because they were trailblazers in countries where Canadian agencies hadn't worked before. Last year, the Bakelaars adopted a baby boy, Khosi, from South Africa. This time, the process was relatively seamless because Mission of Tears, the Toronto agency that helped with Thabiso's adoption in 2002, had since facilitated at least a dozen more adoptions from South Africa.

But even Ethiopia, which has one of the longest-running and most streamlined adoption programs in Africa, isn't immune to problems. The Manitoba-based agency Canadian Advocates for the Adoption of Children (CAFAC) was the first Canadian agency licensed in Ethiopia in 1999. It was the only one there until last year, when three more Canadian agencies were licensed, says CAFAC co-founder Deborah Northcott.

Ms. Northcott says she's alarmed at the way some parents are beginning to shop around for services, seeking out agencies who can find a child the fastest, for the least money. "Certainly we do have the consumerist side of families coming out," she said.

Others, like Ms. Carter-Shotts, point out with frustration that while it's true there are millions of African children in need of loving families, most are not the coveted baby or toddler. They are older, not in perfect health, or attached to siblings.

Girls are most often requested - in some cases because families believe it's more difficult to raise black boys in the United States, Ms. Carter-Shotts said.

"I've had people call me and say, 'Oh, I want a child just like Angelina Jolie.' It's very frustrating because we work for the children. I'm trying to place two brothers right now from Liberia. Nobody wants two boys. Everyone wants a girl," she said. "I feel like sometimes we have families who want to go shopping."

The Children's Bridge, one of Ontario's largest international adoption agencies, is now actively steering parents away from its China program and toward others, including two new ones in Ethiopia and South Africa.

Cathy Murphy, the agency's executive director, says that despite the need in Africa, the chances of its becoming the next China will be limited by the extent to which African countries embrace the practice of international adoption. Right now, the majority do not: Some countries, such as Nigeria and Sudan, forbid it, while others, such as Kenya and Uganda, allow it, but put such heavy demands on prospective parents - such as a requirement that they live in the country as long as six months - that it is effectively impossible.

It will also depend on how Canadians want to build their families, she said. "What I try to convey to parents is, there are still many options open to you," Ms. Murphy says. "It just may not be a 10-month-old Asian baby."

All of the families interviewed for this story said that despite their struggles, they have no regrets. Their lives, and their children's lives, have been made better through adoption.

But there have also been lessons learned.

Sometimes Melrose asks if her five-year-old sister, Christianna, who's still in Sierra Leone, can be adopted too. "She's very small, she doesn't eat much, she can sleep with me," she tells her parents.

The Yurkiws - who have five other children, including three from Mr. Yurkiw's previous relationship - say that for now, at least, they can't imagine going through the stress and expense again.

"It's like, 'Melrose, if it was that easy, we'd do it in a heartbeat,' " Ms. Yurkiw said.

By the numbers

The "it" countries in international adoption are constantly changing as quotas fill, programs close and new ones open.

International adoptions by Canadians, January to September, 2007 (latest figures available):

1) China 524

2) Ethiopia 92

3) Russia 83

4) United States 71

5) Haiti 67

Other 338

Total 1,175

International adoptions

by Canadians, 2002:

1) China 800

2) Russia 146

3) India 127

4) Haiti 98

5) South Korea 98

Other 657

Total 1,926

Hayley Mick

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada

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Before and after 2008, how have demanding AP's changed?

I read some of these articles, and I get so revolted by the fact that the only change we see in Adoptionland is the number of growing agencies getting more and more involved in the corrupt business known as international adoption.

"Is it competitive? Yeah, it's competitive," says Cheryl Carter-Shotts, who directs Americans for African Adoptions, the first North American adoption agency licensed in Ethiopia in 1996. Now, she says, there are about 60 licensed agencies.

"Families want babies and toddlers. Who's going to come up with babies and toddlers? And how much are you going to charge? Are you soliciting pregnant girls?"

And the answer is yes, via Maternity Homes and/or hospitals with maternity services. 

The sick thing is,most foreigners have NO CLUE how documents like "vital statistics" are kept in other parts of the world, and the average person has no idea how little foreign adopters think about what is being done so they may enjoy the fruits of a pricey adoption plan.  For instance, let's look at hot-spot Africa, since modern-day celebrities have made mixed-race families the new must-have "for-keeps" in every cool hip home.  In a different comment regarding a case where 17 females had to be rescued from an illegal maternity home (in 2009), I found and wrote:

On the issue of authentication of official documents, the British-Danish 2008 FFM Report stated:

“When asked whether birth, marriage, divorce and death certificates could be authenticated, the ECO stated that there is no federal government central registry office where copies of all birth, marriage, divorce and death certificates can be obtained. Such documents are most frequently obtained by Nigerian citizens who need them, from local authorities and local registry offices. Likewise with passports, these can be obtained from local passport offices as there was not, until very recently, a centralised passport-issuing agency. He was uncertain as to whether local authorities or local registry offices routinely keep copies of documents but believes some may do. The ECO further stated that the process of issuing official documents in Nigeria is often poorly regulated, and issued documents can often be unreliable, having had little or no verification involved in their production.

“In practice, attempts to authenticate birth, marriage, divorce and death certificates are rarely made by ECOs. This is because the process of authenticating these kinds of documents is often difficult, time-consuming and in some cases, not possible.

[From:  Country of Origin Information Report:  Nigeria, July 9, 2010 ]

So, if it's a fact, Babies are bred for sale, in Nigeria, and these babies are coming from Maternity Homes, what does this say about the international adoption industry, and those who seek to save "orphans" in poverty-stricken regions like Nigeria... or Bulgaria.... or Ethiopia

Do many adopters understand what Maternity Services mean to those not fluent in Positive Adoption Language?

And if an adopter read a violation was reported against a popular adoption agency, like Bucker Adoption and Maternity Services, would the PAP start to re-think 'what's being done' to those encouraged to accept the help/services provided by a Maternity Home -- or would that adoption candidate continue to follow "The Lie We Love"?

[From:  Fine Maternity Services in less-than-ideal Maternity Homes ]

The response seems to be as unchanged as it has since I was exported (from Canada), and sold to a white couple who could afford an infant (just under the age of 1).

while it's true there are millions of African children in need of loving families, most are not the coveted baby or toddler. They are older, not in perfect health, or attached to siblings.

Girls are most often requested - in some cases because families believe it's more difficult to raise black boys in the United States, Ms. Carter-Shotts said.

"I've had people call me and say, 'Oh, I want a child just like Angelina Jolie.' It's very frustrating because we work for the children. I'm trying to place two brothers right now from Liberia. Nobody wants two boys. Everyone wants a girl," she said. "I feel like sometimes we have families who want to go shopping."

The Children's Bridge, one of Ontario's largest international adoption agencies, is now actively steering parents away from its China program and toward others, including two new ones in Ethiopia and South Africa.

Cathy Murphy, the agency's executive director, says that despite the need in Africa, the chances of its becoming the next China will be limited by the extent to which African countries embrace the practice of international adoption. Right now, the majority do not: Some countries, such as Nigeria and Sudan, forbid it, while others, such as Kenya and Uganda, allow it, but put such heavy demands on prospective parents - such as a requirement that they live in the country as long as six months - that it is effectively impossible.

It will also depend on how Canadians want to build their families, she said.

And build, the misguided self-serving AP's will, because the vast majority will insist on two things:

  1. One MUST maintain the use of PAL (Positive Adoption Language), no matter who is getting used, exploited, or abused so a young infant toddler child "orphan" can be had.
  2. One MUST promote the story that says over and over and over again, "despite their struggles, they have no regrets. Their lives, and their children's lives, have been made better through adoption."

Well, if one dares to go through PPL's abuse pages, then peruses PPL's child trafficking and kidnapping pages (where young healthy "orphans" have been kidnapped, so a happy adoption story can be told), and then visits our pages that feature the temporary Forever Family seen in PPL's disrupted placement cases, it's easy to see and say the modern adoption-industry-made "orphan" is not AS lucky as one may want to believe or think.

You ask me?  I will say:   pro-ICA rhetoric = world-wide bull sh*t.... and people are buying it like it's sugar-coated candy.  It makes me sick.

"The Lie We Love"...again and again...and again...

Sigh. As an AP...I am disheartened to read these types of articles...again and again...and over and over....and over...over many years.

The first thing that ran through my mind when I read it was...OMG! WHAT? How many kidnapped kids will it take to get people to stop...listen...and to do the right thing? I just DO NOT get how anyone can do adoptions NOW knowing what is occurring in countries and when you have mothers stating that they brought their children to the hospital because their child was sick and when they returned the children were sold into adoption. These mothers pleas fall on deaf ears, they have no one to turn to. Imagine the OUTRAGE if that occurred here in the US. If an American couple brought their sick child to a Children's hospital because they were sick and upon returning the next day...their child was GONE...sold into ICA...to some happy family in France!

But alas it happens to some poor person in some poor country faraway, far from out thoughts...thus adoption is ok to venture into?? Does this make any sense. I am not anti-adoption nor stating that adoption is not to be done...I am only stating to see the facts.

A few friends of mine have shared with me that on their pick up trip to Ethiopia, they have seen with their own eyes mothers collapsing asking about their children, only to learn that they were moved to some unknown orphanage and no way of getting them back. The children were left there for only a few days, too few days for the process to even begin, let alone finish.

Other cases of Ethiopian children speaking languages from neighboring countries! If that is not a clue that they were trafficked I don't know what is.
Children being laundered much younger than they really are and the stories repeat themselves like some bad late night rerun.

When countries closed and banned agencies morphed into new agencies and facilitators banned by the USE in Guatemala are operating in places like
Ethiopia it REALLY makes one wonder...HOW? If they were corrupt before...wouldn't they be corrupt ...again? Especially given the little oversight in African countries? When finally an uproar occurs, what then happens is the usual slow down of countries, trickling a few cases out, officials scared of approving cases so not to be involved in processing a kidnapped child out of the country and in the end children that really need families, do not get families.

Add to that the generational poverty and the long term effects of civil war that many children have suffered under, it may be best to keep them with their extended families. Maybe providing funds for children services and help build schools. What is truly in the best interest of the child really needs to be done, sadly allowing corrupt agencies and facilitators to operate in poor countries does not seem to be in the best interest of anyone.

People really need to educate themselves of what is occurring in Sierra Leone: http://www.brandeis.edu/investigate/gender/adoption/sierraleone.html

For every PAP choosing the ICA route...

Sierra Leone: Adoptive Mother Speaks Out (an eye opening perspective, as only one who has gone through the junk, can offer others.) 

Among the many things this one Amom has to share about the dark-side of ICA, she wrote about the adoption-circuit, made very popular via pro-adoption websites, adoption support groups, and open adoption forums.

I was glad to leave the world, not on this group, but many others, who simply would not believe or accept, that THEIR child could have been stolen, coerced or trafficked for them to adopt, not from China, India, Nepal,Guatemala, Vietnam, Ethiopia and the many other developing countries that were popular to adopt from.

Funny, isn't it, how "open" has it's limits, since "open" does not necessarily mean there is a freedom to be honest; "open" does not mean there is room full disclosure, or space to provide all the necessary important facts that may protect others from harm. In many ways, "open", in Adoptionland, is all about what's best for business, not baby or parent. 

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