DNA tests provide first confirmation of stolen baby in troubled Guatemalan adoption system

from: iht.com

July 23, 2008
The Associated Press

GUATEMALA CITY: Adoption officials said Wednesday that DNA tests indicate a Guatemalan baby reported stolen from her mother was being adopted by a U.S. couple, the first strong sign that the Central American nation's troubled adoption system relied in part on abducted children.

Authorities have long believed that children were stolen or bought to supply Guatemala's US$100 million-a-year adoption industry before thousands of pending adoptions were frozen in May.

Previously, dozens of mothers reported stolen babies and at least two were found in orphanages, although they had not yet been put up for adoption.

But adoption officials revealed to The Associated Press on Wednesday that DNA tests identified toddler Esther Zulamita, who was reported stolen on March 26, 2007. The girl was in the process of being adopted by an unidentified U.S. couple.

Jaime Tecu, director of a team of experts reviewing all pending Guatemalan adoptions, said the DNA test results represent the first time officials have directly linked a baby reported stolen by its mother to the fraud plagued adoption system.

"This is the first time that we've been able to show, with irrefutable evidence, that a stolen child was put up for adoption," Tecu said.

The baby's mother, Ana Escobar, said armed men locked her in a storage closet at the family's shoe store north of Guatemala City and took the 6-month-old.

"When I got out, my daughter was gone," she told the AP in an earlier interview about the case.

She spent months searching hospitals and orphanages, looking for the child.

In May, Escobar says she was sitting in the National Adoption Council's offices, hoping to get access to the babies whose adoption cases were being reviewed. She looked up and saw a toddler who looked like her baby.

The image of the child being carried by an official haunted her, and she asked officials to see more photos. Soon she was sure the baby girl was hers.

All of the girl's papers were in order, including DNA tests showing that her birth mother was someone other than Escobar. But Escobar convinced officials to take new DNA tests.

"She was so sure that the child was hers that we agreed to search the house where the baby was kept," Tecu said.

The baby was placed with a caretaker while her adoption was pending, but Escobar convinced a Guatemalan judge in May to let her care for the child while the new DNA tests were performed.

"I can't explain how excited and happy I am," Escobar told the AP on Wednesday. "It's a miracle."

Tecu said officials will investigate the lawyers who handled the adoption, the doctor who signed the falsified DNA tests, and anyone else associated with the process.

"This was run by a mafia, and we going after them," he said.

Guatemala froze all 2,286 pending adoptions in May, and officials are reviewing each case to confirm there is no fraud.

At the same time, Guatemala is just starting to adopt babies under a new, more stringent system run by an independent adoption commission.

Before the reform, foreign couples, mostly from the U.S., paid up to US$30,000 to adopt children.

The previous system was so quick and hassle-free it became the second-largest source of foreign babies to U.S. couples after China.


"Not my child..."

Now here's a loaded question:  What percentage of American AP's would be willing to consent to DNA testing, if it means that adopted child can be returned to that child's original family?

Return, what return?

As far as I know American law says that finalizations can not be over-turned. So even if the adoption was illegal it means the child will not be returned to its original family. Staying with the adoptive family is by default considered in the best interest of the child.

That said, I don't believe many American, or for that matter non-American, AP's would stand up voluntarily to participate in DNA testing. Guatemalan adoption were known to be corrupt for many years, still adoption from that country continued. I guess those that didn't want to listen then, certainly don't want to listen now.  


So if an American parent had a child abducted (and subsequently got sold by/through an adoption agency), that parent's right's will be nullified forever?

What if an adoption agency includes DNA testing for all the children being moved through their services... who would be expected to foot that bill?

Who pays the bill

As far as I know the finalization of an international adoption is irrevertable, so even if the rights of the child's parents in the country of origin would be restored, according to American law, the adopters will be regarded as its legal parents. I don't know what happens if the adopters actively participated in the child-trafficking, but most of the dirty work is done by middle men to the point that even agencies and adoption attorneys often keep a clean slate. Like all corruption and shady businesses, people are informed on a need-to-know basis.

Retrospective DNA testing is most unlikely to take place on a grand scale. In all future cases DNA testing could become a mandatory option, in which case PAP's are likely to foot the bill.

PAP's should pay the bill...

I know first hand the devious middle-men in Guatemala who do the adoptions!  They are sneaky little worms who go off to the coast even when the PAP's arrive to do the adoptions!  They take most of the money and do very little work.  They smile and ask you: do you like your baby?  In other words, just like the (now dead) missionary who was helping with the adoption, they say this:  "IF you do NOT pay the bribe ($50.00 in the passport for the visa) you do NOT get your baby!"  As simple as that...  no one bats an eye.  It's just expected and it's done.
Who should pay for the re-testing?  The PAP's!  of course!  NO adoptive parent should ever want a stolen baby.  My baby was NOT stolen!  I know this for a fact.  BUT, everyone knew but me, when I traveled down to Quetzaltenango, Guatemala in 1989, that there were bribes to pay even though the adoption was with the full consent of the mother.  I had to leave Guatemala without my son because the paperwork was stalled...  more money that I DID NOT PAY; the missionary paid it.  I paid the American girl who was working for another missionary the price of her ticket home to Kansas City, so she would do my Embassy interview (gave her POA) and bring my son home.  I went home with dissentary and was in the hospital.  By the time I got home I didn't even know if I wanted to go through with it or not.  It was a nightmare!  But he is a wonderful young man of 20 right now, and even if no one wants to hear this: this was/is a good adoption. Not all adoptions are bad; it's just that the ones that are bad by deception have made adoption itself a bad thing.  And then, of course, we have the abuse within adoptions to add to the illegal adoptions...  it just goes on and on and on...

What did I ever do to deserve this... Teddy

Some extra information

In this particular case the adoption was not finalized yet and the baby has been returned to its mother as was written in this article.

A very low percentage...

I was given my 3 month old Guatemalan baby boy directly from his birth mother.  I don't think many AP's would/could consent to the re-DNA testing because of the deepness of their emotions going into adoption in the first place.  Now, do I think they should?  YES!  Every child should have the DNA reconfirmed before leaving another country.  ANY child deserves to live within their own birth family.  And if it is found out after the adoption that the child could have been stolen, then there should be written into the adoptions legal papers that there HAS to be DNA done with the possibility of the child returning to their birth family.
This needs to be dealt with UP FRONT!  NO AP's or birth mothers should go into ANY adoption contract without knowing ALL the details:  FULL documentation of DNA and relinquishment with re-DNA testing done before the child leaves the country.  FULL documentation of the child's health and background.  Both sides knowing FULL details of what is happening.  Can this be done?  Probably not now, after the years these thieves have had in perfecting the deceptions.  What is the answer?  NO adoption unless there is a built-in formula for guaranteeing each child is truly adoptable.
From my perspective,

What did I ever do to deserve this... Teddy

Reunion 'hard' on Guatemala baby

from: bbc.co.uk

A Guatemalan woman whose daughter was taken from her and handed over for adoption has spoken of the challenges at being reunited with her child.

Ana Escobar said spending more than a year apart had badly affected both mother and baby.

DNA tests in Guatemala have proved that Esther Sulamita is Ms Escobar's child, the first proven case of baby theft for adoption in Guatemala.

The pair are now back together and adoptions remain banned in Guatemala.

The Guatemalan congress tightened laws on adoption in December to try to prevent abuse of the system.

In May the authorities suspended the adoption of some 2,300 children by foreigners and are reviewing each case to check if the babies were genuinely being offered for adoption by their birth mothers.

Difficult reunion

Speaking to the BBC, Ms Escobar said she still felt the pain of being separated from Esther, now aged one year 10 months.

There are lots of Westerners who know that their children are stolen and yet it does not hurt them
Ana Escobar

Adopted Guatemala baby 'stolen'
Baby snatching: Mothers' stories
"The truth is it still hurts. Sometimes I close my eyes and I see the faces of the people who took my baby," she said.

Ms Escobar said her daughter became ill when they were reunited in May, and that her behaviour was erratic in their first weeks together.

"She was very aggressive, she bit me, she hit me, she threw things at me and didn't want me to touch her. It has been tough to adapt, but now I'm trying mentally and I've managed to calm her down."

Being reunited with Esther - who she had seen once with a US woman who was adopting her - was both joyous and traumatic, Ms Escobar said.

"After six months without seeing her, she was bigger, and that was a shock," she said. "It was a traumatic moment, and it was stirring - more than that."

Western warning

Ana Escobar is just one of many Guatemalan women who suspect their children have been illegally taken for adoption, often in the US.

Last year, more than 4,700 Guatemalan children were adopted by Americans.

Documents showing the finger and foot prints of a baby up for adoption on a desk at the Attorney General's office in Guatemala City
Officials are reviewing all pending adoptions to confirm there is no fraud
Dozens of Guatemalan mothers have reported stolen babies, and Ms Escobar accused Guatemalan authorities of foot-dragging in their efforts to crack down on baby-snatching.

She also urged Western couples interested in adopting a Guatemalan child to do adequate research before making a decision.

"First I would say to them check exactly whether the boy or girl is licensed for adoption, to make sure they have not been snatched, or taken from a mother who is suffering.

"It is a matter of conscience: if you know the child is stolen you must say so, otherwise it goes on and on, it gets worse and worse.

"There are lots of Westerners who know that their children are stolen and yet it does not hurt them and they continue to adopt the children."

Ms Escobar reported her daughter stolen last year and during her search saw the baby with a US woman who was adopting her.

The baby had a false birth certificate but DNA tests proved the parentage and Esther is now back with Ms Escobar.

An adoption official confirmed it was the first time a baby proved to have been taken from its mother without her consent, and said the lawyers who handled the adoption, the doctor who signed earlier, falsified DNA tests and anyone else associated with the process would be investigated.

My 19 year old son was

My 19 year old son was adopted from Guatemala when he was 2 months old.  I met his mother, then 17 years old and the maid of the Baptist missionaries who were doing adoptions.  This adoption had several illegal steps to the process in Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango.   One:  baby foot prints were taken but the missionary put money in
the passport to assure this would be processed in a timely manner.  This I learned after the fact.  There were bribes that
were paid before I arrived in Guatemala and some afterwards.  When I complained to the missionary, he said, "You want
your baby, don't you?"  And at that time I had dysentary, a baby at home; and not so sure I was doing the right thing....Well,
DUH!  The grandmother decided she had changed her mind and was told by the missionary's wife:  he's paid for and it's too late.  This I found out before going home, WITHOUT my baby because the paperwork was not done and I was sick.  He was brought home at 3 months old by another missionary's helper, with the chicken pox and as an abused baby.  He had been left alone so much, laying only on his back, on a counter.  Even when I was down there I got up in the middle of the night to feed him (he was crying) and the mother told me, "OH NO, Dona xxxxx, because Dona xxx will not like it."  I told her I BOUGHT the milk and would feed him.  And when I brought him into the dining room with us to eat, I was told, "OH NO, you will spoil him!"
It took one year for us to bond... That precious baby turned out to be such a wonderful child; our bond has NEVER lessened.
BUT... and you know I always have a BUT...  was this right?  His mother had a baby girl one year later and within two years left her in Guatemala with the mother's sister and went to California.  My son missed out on being raised with his full blood sister.   I knew the mother and the family and know he was not ..... wait a minute... YES, he was the same as stolen!  But, being the selfish person that I am, and loving him deeply, I probably would not have volunteered the DNA test had I not known his family.
This is a vicious circle of, what is right chasing what is. 
It does no good to hate me now, but I lay the truth out here for you to see exactly how these things happen.  I only hope you all can learn to hate me less.  We are all victims here; some with more guilt than others; some with no guilt at all.

Teddy that was extremely

Teddy that was extremely brave and honest to share your story like that. I think when you are involved in such an emotional and life changing process it is hard to really see the whole picture, or many times easy to put blinders on.

That is how I felt with our first agency. So many little clues, little lies, but I kept making excuses in my mind for it. I think that is why I was more demanding and asked so many more questions with our second agency and those we dealt with in Russia.

Both of my boys have siblings back in Russia and I struggle with that alot that they are not being raised together and it is something I have expressed in letters to their families. Their response has been, well they wouuldn't have been anyway and now at least they will know each other and have the opportunity to remain in contact and hopefully visit each other--I don't know if those words are meant to make me feel better or make us both feel better or if they are just being brutually honest?

Honesty, in it's most brutal sense

When a parent no longer has any rights to a child, in any shape or form, how is "future visitation with family members" supposed to be discussed?   Is it fair to expect the first-mother to share in the responsibilites adoption took away? 

Not once did my ap's discuss siblings with me.  I had a brother, their son... that's it.

Surely an AP must know unless all siblings are adopted together, ALL family-ties and relations to that child get taken away.   [This should prove just how BIG adoption issues are for the child who wonders:  other than my mother and father, who else shares my biology?]

Adoptees are more than the by-products of two people... we are members of families many of us will never, ever know.


You asked is it fair for the

You asked is it fair for the first mother to share in the responsibility? I don't know if you can answer that across the board, or maybe I am just reading the question incorrectly?

In our case, yes I think it is both of our responsibilities to share in this and promote and support this relationship and that will include visitation.

Yes did adopting them take away the fact they will no longer live together, yes, but so did the fact they chose to place the boys in the orphanage and then not visit. The chose to sign off on the adoption and we chose to adopt them. The boys did not choose this, but it is up to us, as their adoptive family and them as their first family to make sure they do know. This is our particular situation and something we have all agreed to, so I am only speaking from a personal perspective.

They won't wonder who they share their biology with, where they get their eyes or their hair or their nose from, they will know. My one son's sisters are learning english in school and their mom wants them to write and be pen pals with him. Hopefully once they are set up with the computer it will be alot easier as well, especially with a web cam.

I am a sure there will be questions, anger, resentment as to why, why those siblings are with their first mothers and they are not. Why were they placed in the orphanage and the other children weren't? I think we both have to answer it as honestly as we can, but for our particular situation, I believe it is both our responsibilities.

I have to ask...

when you adopted a child, did you think or know you were adopting an entire family?

Interesting question

Kerry,I knew when we began our adoption process, that we were just not adopting this child, but everything about them, their history, their background, their culture. I had hoped we would have the opportunity to know the family, but I understood with how things are in Russia that could be a long shot, but we hoped and tried and thankfully we have that. I am not sure I define it as adopting a family, I feel like we have gained more family members, but it is all pretty new and evolving in terms of our relationship.

I was thinking about something Niels said in terms of brutal honesty, from their firstfamilies or us. I have many times sat down with the all the information I have, that brings me to tears and think, if I was in this situation, how would it affect me to hear it, to hear alot of those harsh truths?

I believe they should know the truth, and I agree with not sugar coating things, but I do struggle with how it should be done. I love them so much, I want to protect them from pain and hurt, but I know I can't always do that, so I really hope together (myself and their firstmothers) can figure out the best way to explain it all and continue to be able to openly grieve what they have lost.


The simple truth is, adoption DOES hurt... and first families need to know their decisions infect their children with a grief and pain that can't just "go away", especially when abuse or neglect happens anyway!

How does a living mother AND father explain to their flesh, blood and bone... "we lost you, and there was nothing we did (or could do) to change that loss."  (?)

Welcome to The Dark Side of Adoption.  Far too many adoptees KNOW one or both parents are alive... they also know those people just gave-up on their role as "parent".

Please understand, in spite of the beliefs that many AP's are improving the lives of children by providing "better opportunities", there is a cost to such a solution.  Removal of "a problem", like a child, is not a solution; instead, child-removal proves just how perverse  "family dysfunction" has become.  It's all very sad, and to say otherwise is just one more HUGE lie. 

Forgive me, but I see no "happiness" in knowing there are THAT many broken families in this world looking for different ways to survive.

There must be other solutions to the problem of "unwanted parenting", ESPECIALLY when that lie has been sold to those who would never know otherwise.

I understand

it does and can hurt. I agree, that when families are broken apart there is no happiness in that. Yes I am grateful for the boys and their lives, but I am not grateful at what happened to them in their little lives to get them to this place? It is sad, yes, but everyday of their lives doesn't have to be sad, I feel we are making the best of a bad situation.

I keep re-reading your first paragraph, so forgive me if I am taking it the wrong way-when you say, abuse and neglect happens anyway, do you think all children who are adopted are abused and neglected by their adoptive families or the abuse and neglect would happen if they remained?

Yes, I am thankful their firstfamilies didn't abort them, of course, in a perfect world could they have remained together, that would be wonderful. But that is not the world they were born into unfortunately, so I am not sure what is the correct answer then? Would it have been to let them remain in an institution because it is in their home country?

There are many intact families looking for ways to survive as well.

I understand the common bond that most people have here on this board and it is of abuse and neglect by their adoptive families, which is such a far different world then the one I know, (with family and friends who are adopted) so it is taking me awhile to digest this all and try to comprehend it, so my apologies.

I guess I am trying to figure out what the goal is, outlaw all adoptions, children are better off with biological families no matter what the situation, or focus more on prevention so unwated pregnancies don't happen, education on parenting and support so families stay together. I thought it was the latter, but then I get the impression that the majority here don't think adoption is ever the answer?

I think the answer to unwanted parenting is to end unwanted pregnancies, but until people take the simple step to either abstain or use the vast amount of birthcontrol options there, there will always be unwanted pregnanices. Thankfully many unwanted pregnancies do turnaround once the child is born and the mother realizes that. But in those situations where they want no part of parenting, how do you convince them otherwise? Believe me, in my years of nursing practice I have always struggled with that, how do you make someone do something they don't want to, without risking the health and safety of the child you are sending home with them?

stop trying to justify adoption today

stop trying to justify adoption today

it should be the last resort EVER 
if it didn't exist, then people wouldn't have an easy way out.  because that's what it is. 
how many natural mothers regret that choice in hindsight? 

every child you send home with anyone is a risk
every parent is a risk

every child you place in a home that's not their own is at greater risk
far riskier than the natural birth mom in terms of emotional well being for the child

is born of circumstance

  • improve the conditions for the natural mother and you improve that child's chances
  • improve the hope of people and their actions no longer reflect hopelessness and less children are born as a by product
  • improve the society's acceptance and support of all mothers and they will not need to turn to make such horrible decisions.

until we give natural families a fighting chance, then there is NO FAIR ADOPTION DEBATE, because the deck is STACKED towards vultures who have every advantage and influence. 

only when we live in a world where there is parity in living conditions - economic AND social - can we even consider what unwanted really means.

because, in reality, it is the burden of living in a situation where you can't even take care of yourself that is really what is unwanted, not the child.  how great the desperation is required to make someone even consider giving away their flesh and blood?  pretty fucking great.

adoption today is a privilege. 

promoted by privileged people
taking advantage of less privileged people

adoption should be for ORPHANS who no longer have real parents. 
adoptions should stay within the extended families whenever possible.
and the state should assist women who have children with special needs.
no babies should ever NEED to go on sale to strangers. 

as long as people like yourself make excuses for your contribution to the current situation, then resources will never be redistributed to end this travesty and improve conditions.  you and your attitudes are the biggest part of this problem.  you are the market.  the black hole. 

thank you, Kris, your continual judgement of women in difficult circumstances while at the same time justifying taking and raising their babies is convincing me to turn into an anti-adoption activist

I do not believe I am

I do not believe I am judging women at all, I was just sharing some experiences I have had in terms of unwanted pregnanices and then what can happen when those unwanted pregnancies become children. I am also sharing bits and pieces I have from our children's firstfamilies, not judging them which of course is a knee jerk reaction when you hear some things, but trying to understand.

I believe I have said in a perfect world it wouldn't exist. I believe many steps are being taken to address alot of what you said, at least in Russia. Look at the numbers and look at what Russia has been promoting, foster and adoptions have increased in Russia by Russians, albeit many not family members, adoptions by foreigns have dropped significantly. I think you can move towards the steps youhave listed above, but yes I do worry about the children currently in these situations, are they the sacrificial lambs for the cause?

My experiences in life, both as a women and nurse, have shaped my beliefs and feelings just like yours. In a perfect world my family wouldn't exist as it is, but it does.

WE ARE the sacrificial lambs

As long as there is a market, this crap will continue

I'd rather live in an orphanage than have gone through what I did in isolation. At least I would have had others going through the same experience.

There is such a thing as exit strategies and exit plans, Kris.   Let the vultures compete for emptying the orphanage.  I'm all for that.
But keeping the orphanages full for the vultures is messed up.

In numbers there is Unity

As long as there are sick demented people taking charge and care of children "in need", there will be a perverse use and abuse of power.  [All one has to do is review the abuses that have taken place over the decades in Children's Homes in the UK and Australia... child abuse is rampant when care is left to strangers.]

I'd rather live in an orphanage than have gone through what I did in isolation. At least I would have had others going through the same experience.

I think about cases like the Jersey Home, [http://poundpuplegacy.org/node/18532], and how those children were isolated and abused by the very powers who were paid to protect them.  There is no safety in a world where pedophiles are allowed free/easy access to children!  This includes churches, as well as state-run institutions.

Those not touched by neglect or abuse may want to believe " a good place to start" is through the removal of a child from the orphanage system.  The truth is, each child will be replaced because money is being made each time a child is adopted by someone who claims to love children.

In the name of "trustworthy love", we must all unite and fight against a system that thinks it's ok to use children as a means to gain sex, money or both.

In response:

I keep re-reading your first paragraph, so forgive me if I am taking it the wrong way-when you say, abuse and neglect happens anyway, do you think all children who are adopted are abused and neglected by their adoptive families or the abuse and neglect would happen if they remained?

What makes you think all children available for adoption were abused or neglected by their first-families?  In my case, the neglect took place once I was in "transitional-care".  It was the foster/orphanage system that caused the flattening of my head, not my mother!  I think ANY time a child is placed in the care of a stranger, you are increasing the chances of abuse and neglect, period.

As far as the "unwanted pregnancy" issue goes.... the way I see it, the only difference between adoption and abortion is the length of suffering and the money made from that misery.

Do I think adoption should be banned altogether?  No.... I simply believe international adoption should be closed, permanently.  People - including greedy money-making-penny-saving governments - need to be taught responsibility and accountability, and the only way that can be done is by removing the "easy-way-out".

The truth is, as any parent knows, parenting really stinks sometimes!  There are problems and sacrifices that no one in their right mind wants to deal with or endure, but the responsible person handles it all because that's what parents are born to do.  This long-term life-lesson needs to be taught to all people considering sex so it can never be said, "No one told me it was going to be this hard!".

Child protection begins with abuse prevention... that's a learned skill that needs to be taught and supported so adoption becomes the last option in "family crisis solutions".


gotta love it

As far as the "unwanted pregnancy" issue goes.... the way I see it, the only difference between adoption and abortion is the length of suffering and the money made from that misery.

Kerry, I think  - i think -  i think you actually made me laugh!

I don't think all children

I don't think all children are abused and neglected, I was just asking for more clarification in regards to post, I just wanted to make sure I was reading it in its correct context.

I do agree with all you have said. I was talking via email today to one of translators in russia we remained friendly with and I asked about how it was going with russians and their fostering and adopting. She said, that just  like the US, the surge started due to the financial incentives offered by the gov't, while yes it helps many families who truly mean well and want to have more children, there are always the ones who do it just for the money, so the children are no better off or worse.

It definitely would be better to use those financial incentives to educate which is sorely lacking especially in the remote villages of Russia.

When I was in my last year of teaching sex education, those dolls that were like real babies just came out, I remember my first group we sent home with them, by the next week they realized parenting wasn't what they thought it was and promised to be safe and think before they acted. I was so excited, I thought finally something to get through to them.

Of course the next year I delivered one of my students babies. Disheartening. I still wonder what it takes, how much to really reach people in terms consequences of their actions?


Maybe their brutal honesty is eventually all for the best. Personally I have a dislike of sugar-coating things and given the many secrets and lies so apparent in many adoptions, I have experienced that many adoptees eventually prefer brutal honesty to any sappy half-baked truth.

Of course I can't speak for your boys, but I can is tell you a little bit about my own siblings. I have a brother and a sister who are respectively 10 years and 5 years older, whom I didn't grow up with. I was adopted, they moved in with my natural father. After a couple of years they were sent away under the influence of his new wife. My brother started living on his own at an early age, my sister was sent back to her mother. Much more about my story you can read in the post Filling the void.

I didn't see my brother between the age of six and eighteen and met my sister even years later. In both cases I felt it was too little too late. The damage was done. The separation had turned us into strangers even though there were weird and unconcidental similarities, like having almost the same record collection, I didn't see a point in building up a relationship with either my brother or my sister. It was the lack of any shared experiences that made me realize the bond that could have been there was permanently lost. 

More sibling matters

The need to know our own siblings is not just for aesthetics in family-portrait making.  For adoptees, there is a genetic-protection aspect that's very often over-looked and forgotten by all parents because no one expects sibling separation to be any huge deal, until of course, it's much too late. 

Adoption brings a child TWO sources of incest.  One type of incest in caused by sexual abuse; the other type is caused by mutual attraction.  The brother-sister case in Germany gives living-example to the fact that no two family-relationships can ever be the same after adoption.  http://poundpuplegacy.org/node/14901


An update on the case...

According to a recent article:

Escobar's persistence in finding out the identity of the child led to DNA testing of Escobar and the girl, which confirmed that the girl was indeed her daughter.

Escobar told the BBC that the time apart has taken a toll on the mother and daughter, because the girl was violent and didn't want to be touched in the beginning. Only 6-months-old when she was kidnapped, she did not know Escobar and Escobar could not know what the child had been through in their time apart.


Perhaps more disturbing, however, is the very last sentence in this written piece:  "Guatemala is second only to China in its export of babies for adoption to Western parents. To meet the demand for babies to adopt, kidnapping has become a problem in both nations."

Pound Pup Legacy